Success Project


Table of contents List of Contributors Chapter 1: The Purpose of the Handbook Chapter 2: Employability Chapter 3: University Teaching and Learning Chapter 4: Innovative Teaching Practices and Techniques Chapter 5: Developing A Teaching Portfolio - Approaching Your Teaching Portfolio Like A Career Designer Chapter 6: Case Studies Chapter 7: Conclusion GLOSSARY 3 4 13 20 37 59 73 98 101

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS Akhona Melani Dr. Alisha Ali Annika Konttinen Prof. Berendien Lubbe Dave Egan David Graham Prof. Diane Abrahams Eva Holmberg Hannes Engelbrecht Dr. Hema Kesa Dr. Herman Myburgh Prof. Hossana Twinomurinzi Prof. Ikechukwu Ezeuduji Prof Jarkko Saarinen Jarmo Ritalahti Dr. Kaarina Tervo-Kankare Prof. Karen Harris Dr. Martina Jordaan Dr. Outi Kulusjärvi Dr. Rebaona Letsholo Dr. Siyabulela Nyikana Prof. Thandi Nzama Prof. Thea Tselepis Tracy Daniels Dr. Wesley Rosslyn- Smith Compiled by: Prof. Diane Abrahams Edited by: Arabella Rogerson Design and Layout: Edmond Hlophe Kagiso Mosue The Visual Studio This document has been prepared for the European Commission however it reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained there. 3

Chapter 1: The Purpose of the Handbook This handbook is intended to be a practical guide for lecturers in South African universities for introducing new pedagogies and technologies into their teaching. The guide is based on the SUCSESS project which funded a cooperative approach between universities in Finland, the UK and South Africa to share new and emerging pedagogies and new technologies for teaching in universities with a particular focus on developing employability skills and engaging with employers in the learning process. The pedagogies, teaching and learning tools and techniques were introduced via a series of workshops and training sessions, which were then adopted and trialled by the South African partners and contextualised to their needs. Firstly, by introducing the pedagogies and technologies with suggestions on how they be best used in a South African context and then illustrating by specific South African case studies. The focus is very much on the operationalisation of these pedagogies and technologies in a South African context. The intended audience is firstly teaching teams who wish to reflect and enhance the learning experience of their students and improve their employability. The handbook is also designed that an individual lecturer can find a practical guide to introducing and using these pedagogies and technologies in their own classroom with useful tips on how to overcome the challenges that may arise particularly from a South African context. 4

1.2 Background of the SUCSESS Project In 2019, the Erasmus+ “SUCSESS” project was awarded by the European Union to several partner universities in South Africa, Finland and the UK. This project was motivated by and awarded due to the critical and consistent problem of youth unemployment in South Africa. The project kicked off in February 2020, just as the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns started to decimate the labour market. The issue of youth unemployment in South Africa was a reality before the COVID lockdowns and has persisted to this day. According to the Quarterly Labour Force Survey (QLFS) of Statistics South Africa, in the first quarter of 2022, the unemployment rate was 63,9% for those aged 15-24 and 42,1% for those aged 25-34 years, while the current official national rate stands at 34,5% (Quarterly Labour Force Survey Q1, 2022: 16). The report states that although “the graduate unemployment rate remains relatively low in South Africa compared to those of other educational levels, unemployment among the youth continues to be a burden, irrespective of educational attainment” (Quarterly Labour Force Survey Q1, 2022: 16). Employability has therefore become a vital issue for government, business and educational institutions to address, thereby elevating the objectives of the SUCSESS project. The SUCSESS project aims to strengthen the cooperation between higher education institutes (HEIs) and enterprises in South Africa. Currently, universities all over the world are shifting their pedagogical approaches toward experiential learning practices, and South Africa is no exception. According to this approach, the role of students, academic staff and industry collaboration changes. Students take on a more active role in the learning process by participating in joint development projects. The role of academic staff also evolves - they no longer feed students with new knowledge but rather, they act as facilitators or coaches, helping students reach new competencies. The value for businesses in this knowledge triangle (students-lecturers-industry) is to support business development and innovation. More innovative and profitable companies will support regional and community development and ultimately enhance prosperity. The period 2020-2023 saw a tremendous amount of work done on the project with the collaboration and knowledge sharing between the South African universities of Pretoria, Johannesburg and Zululand and universities from the global north including Haaga-Helia University of Applied Sciences and Oulu University in Finland and the UK-based SheffieldHallam University. This partnership served to be invaluable during a time when teaching and learning globally required a rethink due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The project was comprised of various work packages. In Work Package 1, primary research amongst students, lecturers and industry was conducted which identified the gaps in university/industry collaboration and recommendations on increasing students' employability were made. 5

Based on these recommendations, and as a first step towards improving employability, Work Package 2 saw the intensive training of university lecturers on new teaching and learning methods. The outcome was developing the innovative university/industry training and capacity-building collaboration model. Work Package 3 was focussed on implementing new learning methods and the innovative implementation of new technologies into the curricula, transforming these into actual student training scenarios. The South African partners energetically implemented the new learning techniques and technologies into their modules. A further outcome of Work Package 3 was the establishment of an ‘Extended Reality’ centre and an ‘Employability’ laboratory. Based on the work done in the project and the successes attained through new learning practices, a critical outcome of Work Package 3 was to provide a resource for lecturers across various disciplines in the form of a practical ‘user guide’. This user guide takes the form of a digital handbook underpinned by theory, new pedagogical methods and teaching practices applied in the project. Through the presentation of case studies from the South African partner universities, some best practices are showcased in the handbook and are based on the application of technology, teaching tools and practices in selected tourism, hospitality and business management modules. The digi-handbook focuses on graduate employability and university collaboration with the industry. The organisation of the handbook begins with a background of the project and its objectives. Afterwards, the handbook explores the concepts and themes drawn from the different training workshops, and links them to the project objectives around changing teaching practices, teaching with technology, collaborating with industry and employability. An area of great importance, highlighted in the Gap Report (2020), is the question of how teaching and learning across our universities address the required competencies and skills needed by our students to become more employable. The digi-handbook identifies how this gap can be overcome. Following the discussion on industry requirements, where the focus was on how universities meet the challenges in the work environment by sending well-rounded graduates into the industry, the handbook addresses the role of “Career Services” at universities. Most universities have an active and separate “Career Services” function, which directs their attention to enhancing industry engagement with the university. This handbook investigates why and how academic departments should be actively linked to the Career Services function to benefit students more holistically. Finally, the digi-handbook offers a comprehensive section on “Best Practices” as drawn from the experiences of lecturers involved in the “SUCSESS” project. These best practices draw on collaboration, competences, technology and employability themes. The digi-handbook concludes with key lessons and learnings for lecturers at HEI as they adapt their techniques and practices in the quest to improve employability and enterprise skill sets of graduates in collaboration with industry. 6

The SUCSESS project is coordinated by Haaga-Helia University of Applied Sciences and is funded by the ERASMUS+ Capacity building programme. The Capacity building programme supports projects between actors in higher education from EU Member states and developing countries. The aim of these projects is to address the challenges facing higher education institutions and to promote people-to-people contact as well as intercultural understanding. The SUCSESS project, aimed at enhancing employability and lifelong learning in South Africa, was approved in 2019, and its activities began in January 2020. As aforementioned, youth unemployment has increased in South Africa. Whilst the root causes to the challenge of youth unemployment are complex and multifaceted, the SUCSESS project aimed to improve the employability and work readiness of university students by introducing new strategies for teaching and learning whilst also enhancing the so-called knowledge triangle to enhance inclusive regional development. Disruptive Times Require New Learning Methods Recent decades have seen global universities undergo some significant changes. Not only do universities offer research excellence, they also provide a commitment to their students in delivering high-quality teaching and learning and ensuring quality graduate outcomes. Increasing focus and efforts have been dedicated to enhancing the employability and work readiness of graduates. Yorke and Knight (2006: 8) define employability as “a set of achievements- skills, understandings and personal attributes- that make graduates more likely to gain employment and be successful in their chosen occupations”. A university degree is always an investment from the perspective of students. That said, the high cost of semester fees can lead to potential applicants also considering the possibilities of gaining a decent job without a university degree for instance, or to consider working and studying short courses in their free time (Businesstech, 2022). According to the Gap Report (2020) conducted in the first phase of the SUCSESS project, students in South Africa have fewer opportunities to engage with industry compared with students in Finland, especially in such activities that require a higher degree of commitment from the industry. South African students also have lower expectations when it comes to finding their dream job in comparison to their British and Finnish counterparts (SUCSESS, 2020). A contributing factor to this is posited to be the fact that the overall youth unemployment in South Africa has been high for a long time. When this project was initiated, youth unemployment was around 30 percent in South Africa, compared to around 12 percent in Finland. Concurrently, South Africa was facing a shortage of employees in several business sectors such as technology and health care, as well as a significant ‘brain drain’ - i.e., welleducated experts leaving the country. 7

Thus, the main motivator for the SUCSESS project was to create a platform to discuss and share experiences of how the employability of South African students can be enhanced throughout their studies - an issue with which the British and the Finnish partners have worked intensively for several years. Introducing teaching and learning methods supporting multidisciplinary learning, aiming at enhancing transversal competencies and skills rather than only focusing on theoretical knowledge, is a solution for enhancing the employability of students. As Pirog et al. (2021: 367) state, “competences are the most important capital a university graduate can have”. Universities are expected to provide teaching and learning opportunities, research outlets and have societal impact. The strengthening of university collaboration with industry increases the opportunities for students to engage with companies throughout their studies which is an approach that has proven to achieve very positive results for the employability of students (Borah et al., 2021; Holmberg et al., 2022). New learning and teaching approaches at universities have also been requested in order to adequately cater to a new generation of students, namely, Generation Z, entering the university. Gen Z (born after 1997) share many of the same values characterising previous generations including, for example, the fact that millennials also experience boredom and disengage if they are not allowed to actively be part of the learning process. Student engagement and activity can be enhanced by effective use of technology such as apps, social media and gamification. Teamwork to reach learning goals as well as encouraging social responsibility in the student projects are other strategies to improve the motivation to learn among students. University lecturers should be encouraged to test new learning approaches and failing should be accepted since failures contribute towards learning and ultimately, students not only learn for school but for life (Jakubik, 2020). New approaches to teaching and learning are redefining the traditional role of the university lecturer. When students are challenged to be involved in real-life projects offered by industry partners, the lecturer becomes a facilitator of learning rather than the expert transferring knowledge to students (Holmberg & Ritalahti, 2017). The transformation from being a lecturer with all the expertise to a facilitator of students’ learning can be challenging. The SUCSESS project offers a platform for supporting this change with a focus on making South African students more employable and work-ready upon graduation. Another important focus of the SUCSESS project is to strengthen the knowledge triangle, i.e., to intensify the collaboration between the partner universities and external stakeholders with a view to offer students a better understanding of the workplace and provide work experiences during their studies. The next part of this chapter elaborates upon this issue. 8

University-Industry Collaboration for Inclusive Growth One of the many responsibilities of universities is to provide programmes that are aimed at offering students a career as an expert in industry or the public sector. In addition, universities also have the added responsibility to conduct research and work for regional development (Pinheiro, et al., 2012; Borah, et al., 2021). The role of universities in regional development and strategy making has been increasing, with a focus on societal impact (Gunasekara, 2006; Fonseca et al., 2021). In this context, the importance of knowledge as discussed by Etzkowitz et al. (2000), becomes crucial: there has been a shift towards knowledge-based regional development models, where universities, industry and government act together to create innovative (and thus resilient) regions. The starting point for the SUCSESS project was the triple helix model that emphasises the collaboration between university, industry, and government for inclusive regional development. In South African universities, research and education are also considered key tools for developing communities within regions, for creating positive social and economic impacts and for increasing inclusivity. When the concept of inclusion is added to regional development, it refers to collaboration, co-creation and participatory actions in the process of defining the objectives and means for development. A fair sharing of the development benefits is stressed as well (Pike et al., 2007). Thus, instead of focusing on economic growth alone, inclusive regional development takes a holistic approach, and includes economic, social, environmental, political and cultural concerns (see Pike et al., 2007). The main aim is to create and maintain wellbeing that is distributed equally within the region, and thus, combat challenges such as poverty, unemployment and inequality. The collaboration between industry and universities is considered an important driver for innovation and economic development (O´Dwyer, Filieri & O´Malley, 2022). The benefits of university-industry collaboration should include benefits for both parties, for example in the form of revenues, new or improved products, improved competitiveness, access to public grants or creating business opportunities (Ankrah & Al-Tabbaa, 2015). In addition, collaboration also generates institution-related and social-related benefits, such as the exposure of the students (and teachers) to practical problems, new ideas, or state-of-theart practices (or technologies), acquisition of up-to-date equipment, providing the partners opportunities for influencing development objectives, building credibility and trust, accessing wider (also international) networks of expertise, serving the communities as well as enhancing the reputation of both universities and businesses (Ankrah & Al-Tabbaa, 2015: 398; O´Dwyer, et al., 2022). 9

University-industry collaboration can also take on diverse forms, depending on the needs of the participants, as well as on the formality and complexity of the relationship (Holmberg, et al., 2022; Borah, et al., 2021; Ankrah & Al-Tabbaa, 2015). For example, the knowledge exchange can take place via meetings and networking, communication (personal and via, e.g., publications), shared trainings and personnel mobility (and work placements). The exchange can serve several different purposes, for instance development of research partnerships, research services, shared infrastructures, academic entrepreneurship, human resource training and transfer as well as the commercialization of intellectual property, scientific publications, or just informal interaction (Perkmann & Walsh, 2007). From the enterprises’ viewpoint, their most important link to universities is the recruitment of skilled graduates (Guimón, 2013), but these enterprises can, through collaborative projects, also learn with and from students, for instance through project-based or inquiry learning approaches (Holmberg et al., 2022; Holmberg & Ritalahti, 2017). A close cooperation between higher education institutions (HEIs) and businesses can result in the development of curricula and pedagogies that enhance the competences and skills considered most important by the industry, for example, project management, networking and teamwork. Conclusion Intensified collaboration between universities and industry partners is a win-win for all partners. Through collaboration projects, university students will gain competences that will improve their overall employability. Through the process of close collaboration, university staff will also learn about the most current trends in industry and the companies involved in the collaboration will be exposed to expertise and specialist knowledge from the lecturers and gain from the innovation capacity of the students. At its best, this collaboration results in improved processes, the development of new services and products and supports inclusive regional development. 10

References Ankrah, S. & O. AL-Tabbaa (2015). Universities-industry collaboration: A systematic review. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 31, 387-408. Borah, D., Malik, K. & Massini, S. (2021). Teaching-focused university-industry collaborations: Determinants and impact on graduates’ employability competences. Research Policy, 50 (3), 1-20. Businesstech (2022). High-demand careers in South Africa that don’t require a university degree. Available at: demand-careers-in-south-africa-that-dont-require-a-university-degree/ Etzkowitz, H., Webster, A., Gebhardt, C. & Cantisano Terra, B.R. (2000). The future of the university and the university of the future: Evolution of ivory tower to entrepreneurial paradigm. Research Policy, 29, 313-330. Fonseca, L., Nieth, L., Salomaa, M. & Benneworth, P. (2021). Universities and Place Leadership. Available at: Gap Report. (2020). Strengthening university-enterprise cooperation in South Africa to support regional development by enhancing lifelong learning skills, social innovations and inclusivity. SUCSESS. WORK PACKAGE 1: GAP ANALYSIS AND BENCHMARKING. Final Report, 30 September 2020. Available at: Guimón, J. (2013). Promoting University-Industry Collaboration in Developing Countries: The Innovation Policy Platform. Word Bank, Washington DC. Gunasekara, C. (2006). Reframing the Role of Universities in the Development of Regional Innovation Systems. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 31 (1), 101-113. Holmberg, E. & Ritalahti, J. (2017). Bringing Real-life Projects into master’s Programmes – Experiences from a Tourism programme. In K. Mäki, L., Vanhanen-Nuutinen, & H. Kotila (Eds.), AMK-maisteri ‒ Työelämän moniosaaja (pp. 133‒142). Haaga-Helia University of Applied Sciences. Holmberg, E., Ritalahti, J. & D. Abrahams (2022). Strengthening work-integrated learning at University of Johannesburg. In K. Mäki, & L. Vanhanen-Nuutinen (Eds.), Korkeakoulupedagogiikka (pp. 291-300). https://www.haaga- Jakubik, M. (2020). Quo Vadis Education? Emergence of New Educational Paradigm. The Open Cybernetics & Systemics Journal, 10 (5), 1-15. 11

References O’Dwyer, M., Filieri, R. & O’Malley, L. (2022). Establishing successful university–industry collaborations: barriers and enablers deconstructed. The Journal of Technology Transfer. Available at: Perkmann, M. & Walsh, K. (2007). University-industry relationships and open innovation: Towards a research agenda. International Journal of Management Reviews 9: 4, 259- 280. Pike, A., Rodríguez-Pose, A. & Tomaney, J. (2007). What Kind of Local and Regional Development and Whom? Regional Studies, 41:9, 1253-1269. Pinheiro, R., B Benneworth, P. & Jones, G. A. (Eds.) (2012). Universities and Regional Development: A critical assessment of tensions and contradictions. Routledge, Abingdon. Pirog, D., Kilar, W. & Rettinger, R. (2021). Self-assessment of competences and their impact on the perceived chances for a successful university-to-work transition: The example of tourism degree students in Poland. Tertiary Education and Management, 367-384. Quarterly Labour Force Survey (QLFS). (2022). 1st Quarter 2022, StatsSA, PO211. Yorke, M. & Knight, P. T. (2006). Embedding Employability into the Curriculum. Learning & Employability Series. The Higher Education Academy, York. 12

Chapter 2: Employability One of the main goals of the SUCSESS project is to increase the employability of graduates in South Africa. Being employable is not only about getting a job after graduation because a certain skill or level of technical proficiency has been mastered, rather, it also requires an understanding of the world of work and what is needed to be successful in the chosen occupation. Employability further depends on personal attributes such as the ability to adapt successfully in a whole range of settings that may vary from individual to individual. Employability is an ongoing process for now and in the future, the success of which benefits the individual, the workforce, the community and the economy (Yorke, 2006). In addition, Walker and Fongwa (2017) argue that employability should cover more than just the options of entering a workplace and contributing to human capital and economic growth but should also include values like ethics and concerns for inequality and poverty. These values can be enhanced at universities when working with contemporary learning methods through collaboration between people of different backgrounds. This section of the handbook looks at the changing landscape of the jobs market, the industry perspective and the kinds of skills graduates need in order to enter the workplace in the future. 13

Megatrends like climate change, sustainable development, urbanisation, globalisation and technological change are bringing major transformations to our lives on local, regional and global scales. Climate change and its impact on the environment and our health can have tremendous consequences all around the world as has already been seen through the droughts, fires and extreme weather events in recent years (European Commission, 2022). A new virus in a distant Chinese city became a pandemic in just a couple of months, wreaking havoc on the people and the economies of all the countries in the world for years. In order to avoid transmission of the virus, universities and businesses alike transitioned to working from home - remote work with technologies enabling online meetings. The pandemic accelerated existing trends and adoption of new technologies all around the world (McKinsey & Company, 2022). As face-to-face meeting became impossible for a while, online meetings thrived as people learned to connect with collaboration partners across the world in a new format and online events and webinars became the ‘new normal’. Due to the pandemic-induced changes to work culture and changing values, hybrid work is very well adopted across many industries (Euromonitor, 2022). Thanks to the onset of the Fourth Industrial Revolution and the effects of COVID-19 on remote and hybrid work, the future of work is already here, at least for the online white-collar workforce (Euromonitor, 2022; World Economic Forum, 2020). Such rapid technological and behavioural change can happen again on a different front, due to different reasons. We have to be willing to accept change as a constant in our lives. Change is also relevant to the careers of graduates since they will most likely have several jobs during their careers. Technological change is rapid, and jobs become redundant while new types of jobs are constantly being created. In a world where machines can replace people since they can complete many tasks more efficiently than humans, it is vital to retrain, upskill and reskill employees for the jobs of tomorrow. Machines and robots powered by Artificial Intelligence (AI) will not take over the world completely however, the work that humans take on however will have to evolve. Many recent graduates lack confidence about the value of their education and their work readiness (Nietzel, 2022). Many circumstances, e.g., rising inflation, resignations and upcoming recession, have made graduates question their education and career choices. 2.1. Change: Transformation of Work due to COVID-19 and Technological Acceleration 14

2.2. Industry Perspective The Fourth Industrial Revolution, demographic change, industrial transitions, dynamic labour market and changes in consumer needs are creating millions of new jobs while also causing job displacement and income inequality (World Economic Forum, 2020a). While digital skills and disruptive technological skills like data science and AI skills have been flagged for jobs of tomorrow, a diverse skills set is in demand by the industry. The new world of work will be both human- and tech-centric (World Economic Forum, 2020a). Developing and enhancing human skills through education, learning and meaningful work is vital for economic success as well as individual and societal wellbeing (World Economic Forum, 2020a). According to the World Economic Forum (2020a), the top 5 emerging job roles in increasing demand are as follows: Data analysts and scientists AI and machine learning specialists Big data specialists Digital marketing and strategy specialists Process automation specialists They feel that their education may be mismatched with the requirements of the industry and employers. However, they are interested in short-term trainings and courses to acquire the skills needed for today’s specialised jobs. Learning new ways to collaborate and work together are important as competences like collaboration, communication, critical thinking and complex problem-solving are becoming critical employability skills (World Economic Forum, 2020a). The ability of companies to grow and adopt new technologies are hindered by the lack of a skilled workforce, a skills gap and the inability to attract specialised talent. As such, universities have to work in closer cooperation with the industry in order to better equip their students with the needs of the industry. By learning together and working with the industry during their studies, e.g., through work-integrated-learning (WIL), students are able to improve their work readiness (Abrahams et al., 2022). Beyond the degrees and skills acquired, companies are also increasingly looking for people who are willing to learn in a job – to develop, upskill and reskill (World Economic Forum, 2020). This aspect was also highlighted in the Gap Report of the SUCSESS project (2020). 15

2.3. Future Skills The competences needed for the future must be readily transferred to different situations and different jobs. Meta-competences such as complex problem-solving, communication, creativity and collaboration, also known as ‘transversal skills’, ‘soft skills’ or ‘21st century skills’, are in great demand. According to the World Economic Forum (2020b), the top 15 skills for 2025 are as follows: Analytical thinking and innovation Active learning and learning strategies Complex problem-solving Critical thinking and analysis Creativity, originality and initiative Leadership and social influence Technology use, monitoring and control Technology design and programming 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Resilience, stress tolerance and flexibility 10. Reasoning, problem-solving and ideation 11. Emotional intelligence 12. Troubleshooting and user experience 13. Service orientation 14. Systems analysis and evaluation 15. Persuasion and negotiation The list includes many skills associated with the 21st century skills, including both digital and human skills. According to Euromonitor (2022), developing digital and soft skills like emotional intelligence, resilience and creativity have become increasingly important for success in the future. For tourism and hospitality jobs in particular, the top 10 soft skills needed worldwide are: customer service, networking, communication, flexibility, organizational skills, language, commitment and multitasking skills along with can-do-attitude and cultural awareness (Giannotti, n.d). Many low-wage occupations with high human interaction, e.g., customer service, will offer little job growth, as AI and automation are adopted, making it necessary for the displaced workforce to switch occupations and upskill themselves in order to remain employed (McKinsey & Company, 2021). 16

In a study by Magalhães, Araújo and Andrés-Marques (2022), current tourism and hospitality workers perceived that their soft skills, e.g., teamwork and flexibility skills, developed the most during the pandemic, but they also became aware of the fact that their hard skills, e.g., digital and language skills, were the most in need of improvement (Magalhães, et al., 2022). Tourism and hospitality jobs also require hard skills, most especially, digital skills. Although a tourism education may not specifically focus on developing those skills or delivering graduates that have advanced digital and technological skills, it is crucial to note that they are expected in the jobs of tomorrow and by employers in the industry, nonetheless. In the future, tourism and hospitality jobs will require a “seamless blend of talent and technology” even more, with machines taking care of the technological side and humans providing people with meaningful connections and experiences (Carlile et al., 2021). As such, it is imperative that universities find ways to enhance those competences in the students during their studies in order to make them employable when they graduate. This handbook is part of that effort, presenting some of the best practices and methods for learning these vital skills for the future of work. 17

References Abrahams, D., Holmberg, E. & Ritalahti, J. (2022). Strengthening work-integrated learning at the University of Johannesburg. In Mäki. K. (Ed.) Korkeakoulupedagogiikka – Ajat, paikat ja tulkinnat (pp. 291-300). Haaga-Helia. Carlile, S., Ivanov, S. & Dijkmans, C. (2021). The digital skills divide: Evidence from the European tourism industry. Journal of Tourism Futures. 07-2020-0114 Euromonitor (2022). Future of Work. Available at: world-beyond-the-pandemic-the-future-of-work-and-education/report European Commission (2022). Consequences of climate change. Available at: Galal, S. (2022). Employment in South Africa - statistics & facts. Statista. Giannotti, F. (n.d.). Top 10 hospitality and tourism soft skills. Available at: McKinsey & Company (2019). The future of work in South Africa: Digitisation, productivity and job creation. Available at: /middle%20east%20and%20africa/the%20future%20of%20work%20in %20south%20africa%20digitisation%20productivity%20and%20job%20creation/ the-future-of-work-in-south-africa.pdf McKinsey & Company (2021). The future of work after COVID-19. Available at: after-covid-19 McKinsey & Company (2022). Future of Work. Available at: Magalhães C, Araújo A, Andrés-Marques MI. (2022). How Do Hospitality Workers Perceive Their Work Skills before and after the Lockdown Imposed by the COVID-19 Pandemic? Social Sciences, 11 (12), 588. Nietzel, M. T. (2022). Recent College Graduates Are Expressing Buyer’s Remorse. Available at: graduates-are-expressing-buyers-remorse/? sh=6c6229195e45&fbclid=IwAR1xnznWWcSwcCs6Rc5CaR3fFKoB- UtB1Y7Sr9H7vZSl2Zf95fQI1qvzeiI 18

References O’Neill, S. (2023). The Changing Face of Human Capital in Travel. Available at: travel/ Statistics South Africa (2023). Incidence of long-term unemployment among women is higher than the national average. Available at: SUCSESS project (2020). Gap report. Available at: gap_report_sucsess_-2020.pdf Walker, M. & Fongwa, S. (2017). Universities, Employability and Human Development. Palgrave Macmillan, UK. World Economic Forum (2020a). The Future of Jobs Report 2020 – World Economic Forum. Available at: WEF_Future_of_Jobs_2020.pdf World Economic Forum (2020b). Jobs of Tomorrow: Mapping Opportunity in the New Economy. Available at: World Economic Forum (2023). Reskilling Revolution: Preparing 1 billion people for tomorrow’s economy. Available at: WTTC (2022). Economic Impact 2022. Available at: Yorke, M. (2006). Employability in Higher Education: What It Is, What It Is Not. Available at: Employability_in_Higher_Education_What_It_Is_What_ It_Is_Not#fullTextFileContent 19

Chapter 3: University Teaching and Learning The following section outlines key concepts that emerged during the project and on which some of the training workshops were focussed. 3.1. Work Integrated Education Work-integrated learning (WIL) aims to provide students with opportunities to apply aspects of their academic learning to the world of work such as the traditional work experience programmes. Within Work Integrated Education (WIE), the opportunities are created for a similar experiential learning experience where the work relevant experience and learning is developed within the classroom and fed back into their academic studies in order to create a holistic learning experience with an emphasis on developing work readiness upon the completion of their studies. Through WIE, students are given the opportunity to engage in experiential learning and gain industry exposure and engagement. This approach to education is career-focused and includes classroom and workplace-based learning for the mutual benefit of the student and the industry partner. A key advantage of this approach is that WIE focuses on the integration of academic learning with the workplace. This enhances student learning outcomes and encourages new innovative curriculum developments, addressing graduate readiness and employability concerns to the specific context of the local employability issues. Moreover, it ensures that the students and employers maximize their gains from engaging in WIE. Within the South African context, WIE offers many benefits for teaching and learning including the following: 20

For South African Organisations For South African Students Academic benefits such as improved academic performance, improved critical thinking and increased motivation to learn Personal benefits such as improved competencies around communication, teamwork abilities and leadership skills Career benefits such as career clarification, increased employment opportunities and the development of positive work values and ethics Skills development through increased competence and technical knowledge Increased global awareness Opportunities to give back to local communities and make a positive impact Table 3.1: Potential Benefits of adopting the WIE Approach in a South African context In the South African context, the implementation of WIE can be challenging for several reasons. Firstly, these activities can be draining in terms of time and resources with students lacking funding for transportation to off-site locations. Secondly, WIE activities are not traditionally formally embedded in curricula and tend to be organized on an ad hoc basis. Thirdly, stakeholders do not always recognize the importance of WIE and finally, organizations who do accept students for internships are often unable to pay stipends in order to cover costs. Moreover, South African students often question the value of WIE as completing the traditional WIE activities of a placement do not always translate into permanent employment opportunities and can therefore incur additional costs during their studies. Thus, a more innovative approach is required that allows a simulation that creates aspects of learning that are made from a more traditional work experience model. It is essential that WIE simulations are provided in a structured approach that aims to maximize the benefits for both students and employers to both encourage participation and improve the learning experiences of students to ultimately improve their graduate employability. WIE challenges in South Africa Develop a pipeline of skilled future employees Participate in corporate social responsibility initiatives Contribute to the sustainability of the South African economy Contribute to compliance with BroadBased Black Economic Empowerment (BBBEE) Codes of Good Practice in terms of skills development 21

Within the SUSCESS project, pilot studies have taken place utilising the WIE approach. The COVID19 pandemic necessitated the move to online learning and created a new innovative environment for WIE projects. By making use of the new online experience of students and employers, the SUSCESS project team developed a hybrid approach utilising the experience of working with an employer/business partner via a virtual collaboration. In so doing, some of the barriers to work experiences for South African students noted above were overcome. In addition, the new approach created an experience that was available to a number of students at the same time, thus increasing the efficiency of the resources allocated by the University and the employer. The experience of the SUSCESS project in this area identified the need for a structured approach. A four-step model has been developed and trialled with considerable success in a South African context. Prepare students and industry partners for the WIE environment by providing them with information on what is expected from all parties involved, dates and times, dress code, attitude, resume writing, interview skills, business practices, business communication, workplace confidence and WIE assessment. Prepare WIE activities by liaising with industry partners and lecturers on how content can be linked. Examples of WIE activities include guest lectures, internship placements, site visits, simulations and industry-based case studies. Mentor students by monitoring their performance and ensuring that all aspects of the WIE programme are covered. Ensure that all record keeping is being done effectively and assessments are submitted. Reflect on WIE experiences by arranging feedback sessions with students and industry partners. This is of particular importance so that students understand the nature and value of their Work Integrated Learning experiences and embed them into their future learning. The key steps identified are as follows: For more detailed guidance and information on the implementation of WIE practices in a South African context, please refer to the Airbnb Entrepreneurship Academy case study in chapter 6 of this handbook. In particular, this case study shows how the experiences of online learning can be adapted to create new opportunities for WIE. 22

3.2. Pedagogy at Universities In contemporary education and schooling, pedagogy with curriculum is of key importance to the execution and implementation of studies. It is defined as both the science of education and strategies of methodologies and instructions strategies in teaching (Chen, 2015). Traditional classroom teaching with its long history from the Middle Ages was very successful up until the 20th century, however, service and knowledge industries need novel ways to teach and learn. Furthermore, perceptions of “knowledge”, “man” and “learning” have evolved and emphasis has shifted from how to discuss knowledge to how to apply knowledge (Ritalahti, 2015). it has been argued that pedagogy is therefore no longer strictly about teaching as according to Smith (2012), pedagogy should focus on the learning processes of learners. Nevgi, Lonka and Lindblom-Ylänne (2011) noted that the semantic origin of ‘pedagogy’ refers to the process of bringing up and guiding children and young people. However, the students at Higher educational institutions (HEI) are grownups, thus we could more appropriately make use of the HEI andragogy concept from Greek language originating from the words ‘man’ and ‘guiding’. Traditionally, andragogy has been interpreted as an approach that is student-centric and problemoriented. It has also been found to enhance the self-steering learning of adults. According to this short description, andragogy can be easily linked to various, more novel pedagogical strategies with a focus on experiential learning. Paideia is also a concept from Ancient Greece that means to train learners to reach all their potential in order to contribute to the well-being of their societies. Yet, the use of different concepts and interpretations can be questioned as people learn in many diverse ways that are not dependant on their age. Pedagogical activities in HEIs signify many things including curriculum work and the development of teaching, planning and implementation of teaching, supervising as well as academic advising and supportive services around them (Korhonen, 2007). Future challenges in HEI pedagogy are focused on solutions that enhance the learnings of competences that are needed in life and work life. As such, certain activities can change in the process, for example, there is perhaps no longer a need for traditional classroom teaching or lecturing to preside as the only implementation of a course. Leaning into this shift also means evolving the traditional teaching culture and the role of teachers (Kolkka & Karvinen, 2012; Bound, 2022). Everyday activities in HEIs are steered by the agreed upon pedagogy which comes to life especially in the practical implementation of the curriculum. According to Kullaslahti, Nisula and Mäntylä (2014), practical questions in pedagogy are, for example, pedagogical methods in use, the transparency of learning processes, 23

how learning environments enhance learning, and the expression of individuality and sense of community in the curriculum. Any chosen pedagogical approach must be defined and shared by all the participants (Ritalahti, 2015). Student centred learning enables efficient learning and can also offer teachers new teaching experiences to make the work more meaningful. It is a possibility that teachers relying on old methods of transferring knowledge could perhaps be replaced by artificial intelligence and other modes of modern technology. This is in line with the fact that the work of teachers is changing owing to several factors including digitalization, globalization and the pandemic with the immediate jump to online teaching, etc. These megatrends have also changed the work life and competences needed of graduates therefore HEI must respond to this new demand. Bound and Tan (2022) confirm that learning should shift from traditional teaching of content to dialogic processes with the focus on learners and learning. Old pedagogical tools do not adequately prepare students for a working life that is easy to describe since it is continuously evolving. The role of learners is also shifting to constructors of knowledge and researchers of valid questions which enables them to effectively contribute to society. In addition, the future-oriented learners also have an understanding of and capability for life-long or continuous learning. 3.3. Experiential Learning Experiential learning is an umbrella term that describes pedagogical approaches that enhances learning and attaining competences that are not in reach of more traditional approaches. Kolb (1984) stated that “learning is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience.” Experiential learning can also be described as pedagogical practices where learning inside educational institution’s walls is transferred to a workplace or workplace setting. In experiential learning, students are engaged to create knowledge, most often together and are also pushed to reflect on their experiences. In experiential learning, students are not simply told what to do, rather they are responsible for their own learning. This experiential learning often takes place through university-industry collaboration. 24

Figure 3.1: University-industry collaboration model Source: Modified from Holmberg et al., 2022 According to King and Zhang (2017), work placements or internships can also be considered forms of experiential learning since they are participative and interactive. Furthermore, in internships, students have contacts to the work environment that is very often variable and uncertain compared to campus life. Work placements or internships are most often a part of the curriculum and at times are also a requirement in national legislation. There are several main approaches to experiential learning which are explored below. Inquiry learning Inquiry learning enhances the empowerment of students to construct, together with teachers, their own aims of learning. This means that students are active subjects in the learning process, and that learning is also a social process. Thus, socio (-) constructivism is a significant influence on inquiry learning processes. Most often, students learn through commissioned, real-life projects that originate from businesses and other organisations outside campuses. In the inquiry learning setting, the projects allow students to work in a learning environment wherein they are able to practice the competences and skills needed in work life (Ritalahti, 2015). 25

Project–based learning Another student-centred pedagogical approach is project-based learning. It is also based on socioconstructivist principles where learning is context-specific, learners reach their goals through social interactions and knowledge and understanding is shared (Cocco, 2006). It can be described as a special implementation of inquiry learning where the framework or context of learning comes from real-life questions linked to real-world practices (Al-Balushi & Al-Aamri, 2014) that normally lend themselves to the development of interesting and engaging learning experiences (Wurdinger, Haar, Hugg & Bezon, 2007). The focus in both approaches, project-based and inquiry learning, is to enhance participants to reach joint goals through collaboration where collaboration means solving problems together in order to reach the expected results. In their engagement with a project, students can encounter problems which need to be addressed in order to construct and present the end product in response to the driving question. Helle, Tynjälä and Olkinuora (2006) state that project work requires all the participants to contribute in order to promote collaborative learning. Furthermore, it also requires reflection and conscious engagement, which is a collaborative form of learning as all participants need to contribute to the shared outcomes and involves elements of experiential learning with active reflection and conscious engagement. Figure 3.2: Summary of the Main Experiential Learning Approaches Source: Holmberg et al., 2022 Problem–based learning Problem-based learning (PBL) is an approach where students learn focusing on a demanding or challenging problem and solving it in teams. The idea is to study the problem from various angles that helps students to cope with unexpected issues that they would meet also in business life. When inquiry learning focuses on solving real life challenges, problem-based learning is most often a desk study or research. Like inquiry learning, problem-based learning demands continuous communication between students and teachers (Hmelo-Silver, 2004). 26